Winners of NTA XI Gender Paper Prizes Announced
We are pleased to announce the three winners of the Gender Paper Prize from the 11th Global Meeting of the NTA Network, held in Dakar in June 2016. The winning papers are:
- ARBITRAGE MARCHÉ DU TRAVAIL ET MARCHÉ DOMESTIQUE, by Latif Dramani, Oumy Laye, Sene Ndeye Sokhor
- CHALLENGES TO INCREASE FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION: GENDER INEQUALITY IN COSTA RICA, by Pamela Jiménez-Fontana
- THE PATTERNS OF NON‑MONETARY TRANSFERS IN EUROPE: A HISTORICAL NTTA ANALYSIS BY AGE AND GENDER, by Ana Šeme, Lili Vargha, Tanja Istenič, Jože Sambt
All three papers are available as NTA Working Papers and can be downloaded from the NTA website. Paper abstracts and direct download links are available below.
In search of well-being, families devote much time on domestic activities including cooking, cleaning, laundry, care for children and senior. Yet these various domestic activities, called "domestic production" are not regarded as an income-generating economic activity and are not sufficiently taken into consideration in the national accounts. The work of Stiglitz et al. (2009) highlight the need to measure this domestic production, to be taken into account in the calculation of household living standards. The method of the National Time Transfer Account (NTTA) was used to measure the time spent on domestic activities. The survey ESPS of 2011 allowed to measure the time spent on domestic activities. The results showed that domestic work time is an average of 7 hours per day for women while it is 30 minutes a day for men. The survey showed that in the paid labor market, the level of men participation in the labor market is significantly higher than that of women with 55.2% of active employed men against 34.3% of active employed women. Moreover, the estimation of women's contribution to the creation of wealth has shown that women produce 35% of the labor income against 65% for men in 2011. By contrast, concerning domestic work, women produce 63% of domestic production and men 37% of this production in 2011. These results demonstrate the existence of an implicit arbitration in households for domestic activity and paid work. In a world where time is increasingly monetized, it is interesting to wonder about the future of domestic work in Senegal and in Africa in general.
Costa Rica is at the end of the demographic transition with an insufficient educational profile to meet the demands of the market. The benefits of the first demographic dividend were not materialize due to the lack of public policies that did not promote better skills for the new generations that will have to support an aging population. In this context, a potential opportunity arises: low female labor force participation poses a scope for accelerating economic growth through greater incorporation of women into the market. This opportunity known as gender dividend, only materialize if public policies reduce the barriers that limit a greater female participation. Despite the rapid growth of the participation rate of women in the market, in the last five years a stagnation of this indicator is observed, which suggests that factors such as care and unpaid work limit the participation of women on the market. Gender inequality in Costa Rica is evident: low female political participation, women as the main responsible for care and policies do not encourage parental responsibility. Some efforts such as childcare networks intend to reduce female unpaid work. However, many of these programs have low coverage and also are target only for people on poverty. In this article I analyze gender inequality on market and unpaid production using the methodology developed by international Counting Women's Work and the project National Transfer Accounts. Also, per capita profiles of key domestic activities by age and sex are analyzed.
THE PATTERNS OF NON‑MONETARY TRANSFERS IN EUROPE: A HISTORICAL NTTA ANALYSIS BY AGE AND GENDER, by Ana Šeme, Lili Vargha, Tanja Istenič, Jože Sambt
This paper analyses the age patterns of production, consumption and net transfers in the form of unpaid work by gender and over time. Using National Time Transfer Accounts methodology, we present the historical results for several European countries for the first time. The results show that the evolution of age patterns over time is different for men and women and is highly affected by different demographic trends, as well as by institutional background of countries. We discover that despite differences over time and across countries, two main characteristics of age patterns do not change: transfers of unpaid work still flow, first, from women to men and secondly, from working‑age population mostly to children and to a lesser extent to the elderly.